Q15. How does it work on copper pipes?

The Pipetector has no effect on copper oxides (patina) because they have no reductivity. With supply of hydrated electrons, however, further oxidation reaction in copper pipes can be prevented since the mechanism of copper oxidation is same as that of iron. The same goes with other metals used for water pipes.


Q14. Is red rust bad for our health?

Red rust may bring about health problems when you ingest more than a certain level. Iron is one of essential elements for human nutrition as our body requires 7 to 48 ml/L of iron a day. Iron is unlikely to be ejected from our body and has middle to high levels of toxicity. A large excess of iron intake may result in iron poisoning, such as hemorrhagic necrosis of gastric mucosa and crust formation. Iron can cause serious health problems to children. Some researches show that excessive intake of iron will cause small children emesis or diarrhea. Although lethal amount of iron is 200 to 250 mg/L, it could be fatal when children ingest more than 3 mg/L. It is also dangerous to pregnant women as iron may affect babies through their mothers. Iron content in water increases as corrosion damage is caused by red rust {FeO(OH) } in pipes.
Black rust (magnetite) protects inner surface of pipe from red rust and is a very hard crystallized material. Once red rust is reduced to black rust, it will provide with a protective coating on inner surface of water pipes.


Q13. What’s the difference between red and black rust?

Red rust dissolves in water and damages inside water pipes. It is unstable and fragile as it causes damage to human health when ingesting too much. In addition, volume of red rust is about tenfold of that of black rust that often clogs the pipes.

On the other hand, black rust is a harmless insoluble substance that is highly resistant to oxidation and protects inside pipes from corrosion damage. It was also used as surface coating of cooking utensils, such as traditional Chinese frying pan and Japanese teapot, and steam locomotive as well.


Q12. How does it reduce red rust to black rust?

Corrosion is generally formed inside iron pipes when iron is deprived of electrons with direct contact with water and oxygen. The iron is then converted to ferrous hydroxide {hydroxide oxide ion, FeO(OH)} to cause issues regarding corrosion inside water pipes.
The Pipetector breaks up water clusters smaller with the use of phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance to relocate free electrons of water (hydrated electrons). In detail, when a certain amount of water flows inside pipes with kinetic energy caused by water pumps and free-fall from elevated tanks for example, the hydrated electrons are likely to change their location from inside the water clusters to the outside. These electrons then function to reduce internal red rust to black rust and stop further corrosion damage and water discoloration as well.
What you need to keep in mind is that black rust (magnetite) is imbalanced just after it is formed, so if supply of hydrated electrons is stopped, black rust goes back to red rust. The hydrated electrons therefore need to be supplied continuously until layer of black rust is thick enough to be stable. When the layer gains enough thickness, it functions as insoluble and protective coating against further corrosion inside water pipes.


Q10. Water is leaking from my pipe. Can the device solve this?

It can. In fact, there are many cases the Pipetector stopped water leaks in the early stage.
If the holes are small, the Piptector can close them with protective coating of magnetite formed inside pipes. The magnetite layer protects inner surface of pipes from further corrosion and early stage of water leak. We have confirmed at more than 1,800 installations that no water leak is found after installation of the device on old and degraded pipes.


Q09. How much water is needed?

It depends on amount of water consumption. If there are issues regarding corrosion inside water pipes, iron content in water should be higher than 0.3 mg/L.


Q08. Does pipe material (steel, copper, zinc, lead, etc.) matter?

The Pipetector is applicable to any types of pipe material.

The Pipetector is effective on galvanized steel, polyvinyl chloride, copper and stainless steel, which are commonly used for pipe material. The effect of the Pipetector reducing red rust to black rust functions throughout pipework including dissimilar metal joints.

The Pipetector also stops oxidation damage on metal pipes.


Q07. How long does it keep water clusters small?

For 6 to 7 hours. During the period, water clusters do not bond together, and hydrated electrons will relocate from the inside to the outside to reduce red rust in water to black rust that eventually forms a protective coating on inner surface of water pipes.